Funds are provided by banks, capital investors, donors or government agency grant providers in response to a presentation by the business of its potential value, so the investment by these funds providers can judged by them as a secure one.
The standard presentation is a business plan. You can read further about business planning at the answer to the following question:
Report Kenneth's answer
Oluwatoyin hi. This link, with business cases of Nigeria related to funding, may help you: https://www.micromentor.org/questions?keywords=funding&countries=NG
Report Miguel 's answer
Usually startup founders begin at the bottom with personal funds, then support or investments from friends and family, then grants, then bank loans or angel investors then larger equity investors. The kind of startup determines the kind of funding required. Most angel investors, VCs and equity partners will want to see a minimum viable product (MVP) that's where personal funds, family support and grants come in, to help build the innvoation that you want others to invest in. I hope this helps.